Dark spots on the skin are the most common, being caused by excessive sun exposure over time. This is because the sun's rays stimulate the production of melanin, which is the pigment that gives color to the skin, but hormonal changes, drug use and other factors act on the melanocytes that give rise to spots on the face or body.
Learn how to identify and remove the 8 major types of skin blemishes:
1. Dark blemishes on the face
Melasma is a dark spot that appears on the face, close to the cheekbones and forehead, being very common in pregnancy or menopause because it is closely linked to hormonal changes. In this case these changes irritate melanocytes that leave darker areas on certain parts of the face. These usually appear or worsen when the person is very exposed to the sun.
How to remove: Spread sunscreen daily with maximum protection factor and avoid prolonged sun exposure, as well as heat sources, avoid getting into hot cars parked in the sun or using the oven, for example. In addition a cream or ointment may be used to lighten the skin. Hydroquinone may be indicated but should not be used for more than 4 weeks. Other options include Vitanol A, cream with acids like Klassis, or Adapalene, for example.
2. Blemishes caused by sun exposure
Sunspots occur most often in light or dark skinned people who are very exposed to the sun without sunscreen. The most affected parts of the body are the hands, arms, face and neck, and although it is more common to appear after the age of 40, they may also occur in younger people.
How to remove: The clearest and most superficial ones can be eliminated with exfoliation every 2 weeks. When there is a greater number of spots it is recommended to go to the dermatologist to indicate the most suitable products. This is important because if you have many spots of this type, you have a higher risk of skin cancer and in this way the doctor will be able to evaluate if the spots have this risk or not. The use of whitening creams may be a good option but aesthetic treatments like laser, pulsed light and peeling also have great results.
3. Red blemishes on the skin
Dermatitis manifests itself through red blemishes on the skin and may be a consequence of the onset of an allergy, and can cause brown spots on the skin that itch and may appear after ingesting allergenic foods such as shrimp, strawberries or peanuts, after applying products to the skin, such as creams, perfumes or cosmetics, or the skin being in contact with objects, such as bracelets or necklaces.
How to remove: A steroid-based cream may be indicated and should be used twice daily until symptoms subside. It is recommended to consult a dermatologist to identify the cause of the allergy, so that you can avoid contact with what caused the allergy in the future.
The white spots on the skin, also known as beach mycosis, arises due to an infection caused by fungus, which causes the appearance of several small whitish spots on the skin. Over time the ringworm spreads through the skin. Usually the person did not become infected at the beach, but after getting more tanned, was observe the presence of whitish areas. The cause of the mycosis is a fungus that lives in human skin and is in a controlled quantity, but when the person's immune system is compromised, it is common for there to be a greater proliferation of this fungus on the skin, giving way to mycosis.
How to remove: In this case, it is recommended to apply an antifungal cream to the skin, 2 times a day, for 3 weeks. When the area that needs treatment is very large, involving all of the back, it may be necessary to take an oral antifungal, such as Fluconazole, under medical indication.
5. Blemish or burn caused by lemon
Phytophotodermatitis is the scientific name for skin lesions caused by lemon. It simply appears if a person gets into contact with lemon and soon after is exposed to the sun. The skin reacts and it can appear a burn or small dark patches in the skin, especially in the hands.
How to remove: It is recommended to wash the skin thoroughly, apply a cream with hydroquinone 3 to 4 times a day, and avoid placing products, such as perfumes or cosmetics, on affected skin. It is also important to always wear sunscreen over the affected area for effective treatment.
6. Diabetes rash
Acanthosis nigricans is the scientific name for dark spots that appear around the neck, skin folds, underarms and under the breast in people who have insulin resistance or diabetes. However, although it is rarer, this type may also occur in people with cancer.
How to remove: One should consult a dermatologist, who will prescribe whitening creams and identify the cause of acanthosis nigricans. In addition, when it is caused by being overweight, the patient should lose weight because this will facilitate the treatment to standardize the tone of the skin.
Vitiligo is a disease that leads to the appearance of white patches on the skin, especially in places such as genitals, elbows, knees, face, feet and hands. Vitiligo can appear at any age and its causes are not yet known.
How to remove: It is recommended to consult a dermatologist to start the appropriate treatment according to each case. Creams that even the skin tone can be used but the use of sunscreen is essential because the fair skin is more likely to develop skin cancer.
8. Blemishes on the face due to acne
The pimple scar is a very common cause of skin blemishes in young teens, arising mainly after severe acne treatment, for example.
How to remove: A good treatment to standardize the tone of the skin is to pass rosehip seed oil, 2 to 3 times a day on the scar, avoiding exposure to the sun. But in addition, it is also important to keep skin oil controlled with anti-acne treatments. When the person no longer presents any blackheads or pimples it can be indicated treatments to lighten the skin, such as creams with acids, peeling with acids, microneedling and aesthetic treatments like laser or pulsed light.
How to remove birthmarks
Birthmarks may be reddish or darker than the skin tone, and generally do not respond well to any type of treatment, being a characteristic that the person possesses. But when it causes a lot of embarrassment, the person can go to a dermatologist to evaluate the treatments that exist, because it will depend on their location and the depth of each blemish.
Acid peeling removes the outermost and middle layer of the skin and laser treatment may an option to remove this type of blemish from the skin. Getting a tattoo and taking advantage of the shape and location of the spot can also be a positive way of living in peace with the spot.
Cautions to follow to increase treatment success
The 4 essential cautions to prevent the appearance of new spots on the skin, and to prevent those that already exist getting even darker, are:
- Always wear a sunscreen with a high protection factor before leaving the house;
- Moisturize your skin daily, body and face, with creams suitable for each type;
- Avoid excessive sun exposure;
- Do not squeeze pimples or blackheads, which can leave dark marks on the skin.
These cautions should be followed while treating any type of blemish on the skin.