Brown vaginal discharge may be noted at the end of or after a period, as blood starts to clot after a few days of a heavier flow. The brown color is usually a sign of older blood, as bright red blood indicates active bleeding. However, brown discharge that occurs with other symptoms may be a sign of another health condition, like endometriosis, PCOS or an ovarian cyst.
Brown discharge may also occur after sex, especially following any vaginal wall irritation. Irritation is more common during phases of hormonal changes, like during menstruation or pregnancy.
If brown vaginal discharge lasts for more than 3 days or if you are also experiencing any discomfort, like itching or pelvic pain, you should see your doctor for assessment and to initiate treatment as needed. Check out what different colors of vaginal discharge mean.
What causes brown vaginal discharge?
Some of the possible causes of brown vaginal discharge include irritation of the cervix, pelvic inflammatory disease, and ovarian cyst. See more causes and how to treat each of these conditions.
1. Cervical irritation
The cervix is a very sensitive area and normal procedures, such as the pap test, or increased sex, may cause brown discharge
What to do: No specific treatment is necessary, because there is usually very little discharge with no other symptoms. Keeping the area clean and dry may be enough to resolve this discharge in less than 2 days. However, it is important to avoid sex until the discharge has disappeared.
2. Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease refers to an inflammation in a woman's internal reproductive organs, and can be caused by conditions like endometritis, salpingitis, bacterial vaginosis, or inflammation of the ovaries. These conditions can cause dark vaginal discharge, pelvic pain and discomfort during sex. The discharge can appear during or after menstruation, or a few days or weeks after being infected with an STI.
What to do: After ordering tests to identify what is causing the inflammatory disease, the doctor may indicate the use of oral antibiotics or a topical ointment for application in the vagina. Anti-inflammatory drugs and medications for fever may also be recommended. If there is no improvement in symptoms within 3 days, the doctor can swap the medications for others. Sex is not advised until you finish the treatment, as these diseases can be transmitted sexually.
3. Ovarian cyst
Ovarian cysts can cause uterine bleeding before or after menstruation, and this mixed with the woman's natural secretions can come out as a brown discharge. Cysts often also cause other symptoms, such as pain during ovulation or during/after sex, spotting outside of a period, weight gain and difficulty getting pregnant.
Read more about the symptoms of ovarian cysts and the common doubts many women have.
What to do: Specific treatment isn’t always necessary, especially in young women as cysts are considered to be normal. Your doctor may recommend the use of birth control to manage symptoms. In more severe cases, the ovary may need to be removed to prevent further complications such as torsion of the ovary or cancer.
4. Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome can cause dark discharge due of the presence of uterine blood. Other common symptoms include irregular periods, acne and the appearance of thick facial or body hair.
What to do: Treatment can be completed using specific contraceptive pill recommended by the doctor. These can help to regulate cycles and control hormonal fluctuations, noting that not all contraceptive pills are suitable.
5. Uterine cancer
Uterine cancer can cause brown vaginal discharge, as well as other symptoms like bleeding before, during or after menstruation, and pain in the pelvic area after sex.
What to do: If you suspect something isn't right, you consult your doctor for assessment. Cancer can be ruled out with tests like a pap test or colposcopy. If confirmed, appropriate treatment will depend on the stage of cancer diagnosed, and may include brachytherapy, radiation, or surgical removal of the uterus.
Endometriosis is a condition that affects many women. It is characterized by the growth of uterine tissue outside of the uterus, like in the ovaries or intestines. Some more common symptoms include brown discharge, intense pelvic pain, heavy period flow, pain with sex, and even difficulty urinating or pooping.
Learn more about endometriosis symptoms and how symptoms can vary depending on where uterine cells migrate to.
What to do: Treatment for endometriosis should be guided by a doctor and individual to each woman. It is important to have regular follow-ups with your gynecologist. Some treatment options include the use of IUDs, hormonal therapy and surgery.
7. Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs)
Some STIs, like gonorrhea or chlamydia, can also cause brown discharge. These cases occur more frequently following unprotected sex, and are normally accompanied by other symptoms like pain with urination, the sensation of pressure in the pelvic are and bleeding with sex.
Learn more about the most common STIs and how they are treated.
What to do: STIs normally require treatment with antibiotic, therefore it is important to consult your doctor if you suspect infection.
Can brown discharge be a sign of pregnancy?
Usually, brown discharge is not a sign of pregnancy. It is more common to see a small amount of pinkish discharge in the beginning of pregnancy, which indicates that the embryo has attached itself into the lining of the uterus. Learn more about brown discharge during pregnancy and when it is normal.
However, if a pregnant woman has a dark fluid similar to menstruation and brown discharge, this may indicate blood loss through the vagina and requires assessment. You should especially seek medical attention if it has a foul smell or other symptoms like abdominal pain, itching or heavy bleeding. This change may indicate, among other possibilities, ectopic pregnancy.
Read about early pregnancy symptoms that can occur along with brown discharge.
When to worry
Go to a gynecologist when the brown vaginal discharge:
- Lasts more than 3 days
- Is accompanied by other symptoms such as abdominal pain, foul smell or itching
- Occurs with bright red bleeding
In these cases, the doctor will diagnose the problem by examining the discharge and inserting the vaginal speculum to assess the inside of the vagina. Based on findings, appropriate treatment will then be recommended.
When is it normal?
Brown discharge is normal in the following situations:
- During adolescence
- After sex during pregnancy
- In the first few days after menstruation
- With hormonal changes
- Changes in the contraceptive method
However, if there is a lot of discharge or if it lasts for more than 3 days, you should see a doctor for assessment.
How to prevent vaginal discharge
To prevent dark vaginal discharge, avoid using vaginal douches and wash the external vagina every day while bathing or after sex. Underwear should be cotton-based to prevent moisture in the area as well as prolonged use of shorts and tight jeans, as these promote increased sweat and the spread of micro-organisms that cause infections.