Excessive blood sugar, scientifically called hyperglycemia, occurs when your fasting blood glucose rate is above 100 mg / dL, which if persistent can have bad consequences for organ function and should therefore be adequately treated with a diet, physical exercise, and medication indicated by your doctor.
Although it usually does not cause symptoms, as it settles quietly, when hyperglycemia is persistent or very high it can cause:
- Excessive thirst;
- Increased urge to urinate;
- Hunger difficult to satiate;
- Unexplained weight loss;
- Feeling sick;
- Tingling in the hands or feet;
- Blurry vision.
These symptoms are caused by reactions due to too much sugar in the blood and lack of insulin to bring glucose to the cells, leaving them without energy. This is most common when diabetes is already installed. So, whenever glucose reaches persistent values above 126 mg / dL fasting, or 200 mg / dL at any time of the day, diabetes is diagnosed, a very dangerous disease that can cause insulin deficiency and excess blood glucose.
Therefore, whenever these symptoms appear, it is important to see your GP as soon as possible for clinical evaluation and initial tests to identify blood glucose levels as well as blood pressure, cholesterol levels and triglycerides, for example, situations that are also risks to your cardiovascular health.
How to confirm the diagnosis
To diagnose excess blood glucose, the main test indicated is fasting glucose, which is already considered high when above 100 mg / dl or indicates diabetes when it is above 126 mg / dL in at least two different dosages, or above 200 mg / dl in a single dosage.
Other tests also available for this function are the oral glucose tolerance test, postprandial blood glucose, capillary blood glucose or glycated hemoglobin, which should be ordered by your doctor.
How to Lower Your Blood Sugar Levels
In the cases of an isolated hyperglycemia or when there is pre-diabetes it is very important to be careful with food, avoiding consuming sugar or carbohydrates excessively, and eating more vegetables and whole grain foods to prevent it from turning into diabetes. See how to identify and treat prediabetes.
In the case of diagnosed diabetes, or in situations of excessive glycemia, it is necessary to use antidiabetic medication, such as Metformin, Glibenclamide, Glimepiride, Gliclazide or even Insulin, for example. Diabetics should also be very careful about their diet to avoid blood glucose spikes, exercise, and regular follow-up with half-yearly or yearly medical appointments.
Some tips to prevent your blood sugar from getting out of hand include:
- Eat at regular intervals of 3 hours. Trying to eat small meals;
- Do not eat concentrated candies or isolated fruits as a meal;
- Do some physical activity such as walking after main meals and do not go straight to sleep.
An appointment with a dietitian may also be helpful in clarifying important issues such as what to eat, when to eat, as well as foods you cannot eat in case of diabetes or pre-diabetes.