There are several causes that can lead to the development of a lump on the anus, some of them, such as hemorrhoids, are not serious and may disappear without specific treatment, but others, such as an anal abscess or cancer, are more severe and usually require medical treatment.
So, it is best to always see a proctologist or a general practitioner, especially if the lump is very painful, preventing walking, if it increases in size or if it takes more than 1 week to decrease in size, for example.
Hemorrhoids are the most common causes for lumps on the anus, because as they arise due to dilation of a vein, the appearance of a small soft "ball" in the anal region is common. In these cases, other symptoms such as itching, pain when defecating and blood in the stools may also appear.
Hemorrhoids are usually more common in people who have other cases in the family, who suffer from diarrhea or chronic obstipation, who stand for a long time during the day, or who often perform heavy physical exertion.
How to treat it: In most cases you only need to follow a diet that facilitates the elimination of feces, such as eating foods rich in fibers and drinking 2 liters of water a day. However, sitting baths and avoiding the use of toilet paper are also good options for relieving discomfort. When the discomfort is very severe, the doctor may also prescribe the use of an anesthetic ointment or corticosteroid for 5 to 7 days.
2. Anal wart
Warts are small, pinkish or whitish lumps on the skin that can also appear in the anal region and usually do not cause pain or discomfort and are caused by HPV virus infection in the region. However, in some cases, anal warts may cause some itching in the region, as well as slight bleeding that may be seen on the toilet paper or even a foreign body sensation in the anus.
Generally, this type of infection is more common in cases of anal sex without a condom, especially when there is more than one partner.
How to treat: It is always recommended to see a proctologist to evaluate the lesions and start the most appropriate treatment, which can be done with cryotherapy, 25% podophylline or immunotherapy, for example.
3. Anal abscess
Although rarer, anal abscess can cause a lump to develop near the anus. This is because the abscess is an accumulation of pus that arises from an infection in the region, which can be caused by a blocked gland or a sexually transmitted disease, for example.
Normally, in addition to the presence of a lump in the anus, the abscess can also cause symptoms such as severe pain, swelling in the anus region, and tightening of the region.
How to treat: It is almost always necessary to remove the accumulated pus inside the abscess and therefore you should go to the proctologist. However, in the most severe cases, where the abscess is very large, surgery may be recommended to remove the pus and facilitate healing of the site.
4. Molluscum contagiosum
Molluscum contagiosum is a skin problem caused by the poxvirus virus, which causes the formation of small lumps in the skin and may also affect the perianal region. This situation is more common in adults due to the practice of unprotected anal sexual contact.
How to treat: The treatment is similar to that of genital warts, and can be done by applying ointments prescribed by the proctologist, which may contain salicylic acid or an antiviral. In addition, in some cases it is also possible to use cryotherapy or laser to destroy the lesions.
5. Anal cancer
This is the rarest causes of a lump in the anal region, but it is also the most serious, which needs to be identified as quickly as possible by the proctologist in order for the treatment to be most successful. In these cases, in addition to the lump, there may also be constant pain in the anus, itching, difficulty defecating or blood in the stools.
How to treat: Treatment needs to be discussed with a proctologist, but is usually done using chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, if the tumor is small, it may still be considered to remove it with surgery, for example.