A white blood cell is a part of a blood test that consists of evaluating white blood cells, also called white blood cells, which are the cells responsible for the body's defense. This test indicates the number of neutrophils, rods or segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils present in the blood.
Increased leukocyte values, known as leukocytosis, can happen due to infections or blood disorders like leukemia, for example. The opposite, known as leukopenia, can be caused by medication or chemotherapy. Both leukopenia and leukocytosis should be investigated by the physician in order to establish the best treatment according to the cause. Learn more about leukocytes.
Normal leukogram reference range
The blood count reference values vary according to the person's age and the laboratory, being the normal values:
|1º Day of life||9.000 to 30.000/mm³||6.000 to 26.000/mm³||2.000 to 11.000/mm³|
|Between 6 months and 2 years of age||6.000 to 17. 500/mm³||1.500 to 8.500/mm³||3.000 to 9.500/mm³|
|Between 2 to 3 years of age||5.500 to 15.500/mm³||1.500 to 8.500/mm³||2.000 to 8.000/mm³|
|Between 3 to 6 years of age||5.000 to 14.500/mm³||1.500 to 8.000/mm³||1.500 to 7.000/mm³|
|Between 6 to 13 years of age||5.000 to 13.000/mm³||1.800 to 8000/mm³||1.200 to 6.000/mm³|
|Adults||4.500 to 11.000/mm³||1.800 to 7.700/mm³||1.000 to 4.800/mm³|
Leukopenia occurs when leukocytes are less than 4,500 / mm³ in adults and leukocytosis occurs when leukocytes are greater than 11,000 / mm³, with its value higher than the reference value.
If you have recently had a white blood cell and you want to know the possible cause of the increase or decrease in leukocyte count, please enter your details below:
What does a leukogram indicate
A leukogram is requested to evaluate the body's defense system and to check for any inflammation or infection that may be ongoing. This test is part of the blood count and is done from the collection of blood in the laboratory. Fasting is not necessary to perform the test, only if it requested in conjunction with other tests, such as glucose and cholesterol levels, for example. See why a complete blood count is important.
The body's defense cells are neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, being responsible for different functions in the body, such as:
- Neutrophils: They are the most abundant blood cells in the defense system, being responsible for fighting infections, and may be indicative of bacterial infection when the reference range are increased. Rods are the young neutrophils that are usually found in the blood when there are infections in the acute phase. Segmented neutrophils are the mature and most commonly found neutrophils in the blood;
- Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes are responsible for fighting viruses and tumors and producing antibodies. When increased, they may indicate viral infection, HIV, leukemia, or rejection of a transplanted organ, for example;
- Monocytes: These are the defense cells responsible for phagocyting invading microorganisms and are also called macrophages. They act against viruses and bacteria without differentiating;
- Eosinophils: They are defense cells activated in case of allergy or parasitic infections;
- Basophils: These are the defense cells activated in cases of chronic inflammation or prolonged allergy and, under normal conditions, only found up to 1%.
From the results of the white blood cell count and other laboratory tests, the physician can correlate with the person's clinical history and establish the diagnosis and treatment if necessary.