The symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents arise suddenly and can be noticed when the child feels often very tired , is very hungry and loses weight from one hour to another. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the symptoms often arise due to inadequate feeding of the child and the adolescent, which results in a lot of thirst, a desire to go frequently to the bathroom, besides the folds of the armpit or neck darkening, for example.
The best way to diagnose diabetes is through blood tests that evaluate the amount of circulating sugar, such as fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and TOTG.
First symptoms of diabetes in children and adolescents
The signs and symptoms that may make you suspect your child has diabetes can be:
- Frequent fatigue, lack of energy to play, drowsy, laziness;
- The child eats well, but still loses weight suddenly;
- The child may wake up to pee at night or return to bed wetting;
- Too much thirst, even on colder days, their mouth remains dry;
- Becomes more irritable or lacks the mood to carry out day-to-day activities, as well as a decrease in school performance;
- Very hungry;
- Tingling or cramping in limbs;
- Difficulty in healing wounds.
In addition, the child or adolescent may present several fungal infections in a short period of time and even their skin folds may darken, especially those in the neck and armpits. So when parents notice any of these symptoms that may or may not be related to diabetes, it is important to take the child to their pediatrician for tests that can confirm diabetes if it is the case.
Diabetes in adults
In adults, the symptoms of type 2 diabetes are usually related to complications of the disease, such as difficulty in seeing, pain and tingling in the body, kidney problems, poor circulation and erectile dysfunction. It is common for type 2 diabetes to remain silent for 10 to 15 years, during which time fasting glucose may remain normal, for example.
Thus, anyone who has diabetes in the family, is sedentary, or is overweight needs to be periodically monitored to assess glucose levels by examining fasting blood glucose, finger prick test, and glycated hemoglobin, for example.
How is the diagnosis reached
Diabetes can be diagnosed through some symptoms, such as:
- Finger prick test: Normal up to 200 mg / dL at any time of the day;
- Glucose blood test with 8-hour fasting: Normal up to 99 mg / dL;
- Glucose tolerance test: Normal up to 140 mg / dL 2 hours after the test and 199 mg / dL up to 4 hours;
- Glycated hemoglobin: Normal up to 5.7%.
Everyone should do at least 1 of these tests once a year to find out if their blood sugar level is high. Anyone of any age can have type 2 diabetes, even without cases in the family, but the chances increase when they have a poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle.
How to treat diabetes
The treatment of diabetes is mainly done through the control of food, regulating the amount of carbohydrates that the child consumes during the day, which is why it is important to have a nutritionist to guide you through the process. In addition, the use of medications may be recommended by an endocrinologist, however this is more frequent for adults.
In children and adolescents, diabetes can be easily controlled through diet and regular physical exercise. See what to eat if you have diabetes.